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Distinctive and self-identified black communities have been reported in countries such as Iraq, with a reported 1. These descendants of the Zanj have sought minority status from the government, which would reserve some seats in Parliament for representatives of their population.

Mazrui et al. Afro-Iranians are people of black African ancestry residing in Iran. During the Qajar dynasty , many wealthy households imported black African women and children as slaves to perform domestic work.

This slave labor was drawn exclusively from the Zanj, who were Bantu -speaking peoples that lived along the African Great Lakes , in an area roughly comprising modern-day Tanzania , Mozambique and Malawi.

The vast majority of these, some ,, are Beta Israel , [46] most of whom are recent immigrants who came during the s and s from Ethiopia.

Unknown numbers of black converts to Judaism reside in Israel, most of them converts from the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States.

Additionally, there are around 60, non-Jewish African immigrants in Israel, some of whom have sought asylum.

Most of the migrants are from communities in Sudan and Eritrea , particularly the Niger-Congo -speaking Nuba groups of the southern Nuba Mountains ; some are illegal immigrants.

Beginning several centuries ago, during the period of the Ottoman Empire , tens of thousands of Zanj captives were brought by slave traders to plantations and agricultural areas situated between Antalya and Istanbul in present-day Turkey.

The Siddi are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan whose members are descendants from the Bantu peoples. Negritos are believed to have been the first inhabitants of Southeast Asia.

Once inhabiting Taiwan, [56] Vietnam, [57] and various other parts of Asia, they are now confined primarily to Thailand, [58] the Malay Archipelago, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.

Negritos in the Philippines, and Southeast Asia in general, face much discrimination. Usually, they are marginalized and live in poverty, unable to find employment that will take them.

While census collection of ethnic background is illegal in France , it is estimated that there are about 2. As of , there were approximately , Afro-Germans not including those of mixed ethnicity.

This number is difficult to estimate because the German census does not use race as a category. The Netherlands also has sizable Cape Verdean and other African communities.

The term " Moors " has been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims , [65] especially those of Arab or Berber ancestry, whether living in North Africa or Iberia.

Indeed, by the time Isidore of Seville came to write his Etymologies , the word Maurus or "Moor" had become an adjective in Latin, "for the Greeks call black, mauron".

Today, there are an estimated , Afro-Spaniards in Spain. The preferred official umbrella term is "black and minority ethnic" BAME , but sometimes the term "black" is used on its own, to express unified opposition to racism, as in the Southall Black Sisters , which started with a mainly British Asian constituency, and the National Black Police Association , which has a membership of "African, African-Caribbean and Asian origin".

As African states became independent in the s, the Soviet Union offered many of their citizens the chance to study in Russia.

Over a period of 40 years, about , African students from various countries moved to Russia to pursue higher studies, including many Black Africans.

Due to the slave trade in the Ottoman Empire that had flourished in the Balkans , the coastal town of Ulcinj in Montenegro had its own black community.

Indigenous Australians have been referred to as "black people" in Australia since the early days of European settlement.

Being identified as either "black" or "white" in Australia during the 19th and early 20th centuries was critical in one's employment and social prospects.

Various state-based Aboriginal Protection Boards were established which had virtually complete control over the lives of Indigenous Australians — where they lived, their employment, marriage, education and included the power to separate children from their parents.

A report by Baldwin Spencer states that:. One thing is certain and that is that the white population as a whole will never mix with half-castes After the First World War , however, it became apparent that the number of mixed-race people was growing at a faster rate than the white population, and by fear of the "half-caste menace" undermining the White Australia ideal from within was being taken as a serious concern.

The problem of our half-castes will quickly be eliminated by the complete disappearance of the black race, and the swift submergence of their progeny in the white.

The official policy became one of biological and cultural assimilation : "Eliminate the full-blood and permit the white admixture to half-castes and eventually the race will become white".

The second half of the 20th century to the present has seen a gradual shift towards improved human rights for Aboriginal people.

Activist Bob Maza said:. I only hope that when I die I can say I'm black and it's beautiful to be black. It is this sense of pride which we are trying to give back to the aborigine [ sic ] today.

This nationwide acceptance and recognition of Aboriginal people led to a significant increase in the number of people self-identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander.

Melanesians, along with other Pacific Islanders , were frequently deceived or coerced during the 19th and 20th centuries into forced labour for sugarcane, cotton, and coffee planters in countries distant to their native lands in a practice known as blackbirding.

In Queensland , some 55, to 62, [] were brought from the New Hebrides , the Solomon Islands , and New Guinea to work in sugarcane fields.

Under the Pacific Island Labourers Act , most islanders working in Queensland were repatriated back to their homelands. Many Melanesians have taken up the term 'Melanesia' as a way to empower themselves as a collective people.

Stephanie Lawson writes that the term "moved from a term of denigration to one of affirmation, providing a positive basis for contemporary subregional identity as well as a formal organisation".

John Caesar , nicknamed "Black Caesar", a convict and bushranger with parents born in an unknown area in Africa, was one of the first people of recent Black African ancestry to arrive in Australia.

At the Census, , residents declared that they were born in Africa. This figure pertains to all immigrants to Australia who were born in nations in Africa regardless of race, and includes White Africans.

Black Canadians is a designation used for people of Black African ancestry, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada.

Black Canadians often draw a distinction between those of Afro-Caribbean ancestry and those of other African roots.

The term African Canadian is occasionally used by some Black Canadians who trace their heritage to the first slaves brought by British and French colonists to the North American mainland.

In addition, an estimated ten to thirty thousand fugitive slaves reached freedom in Canada from the Southern United States during the antebellum years, aided by people along the Underground Railroad.

Many Black people of Caribbean origin in Canada reject the term African Canadian as an elision of the uniquely Caribbean aspects of their heritage, [] and instead identify as Caribbean Canadian.

There were eight principal areas used by Europeans to buy and ship slaves to the Western Hemisphere. The number of enslaved people sold to the New World varied throughout the slave trade.

As for the distribution of slaves from regions of activity, certain areas produced far more enslaved people than others.

Between and , By the s, nigger had become a pejorative word in the United States. In its stead, the term colored became the mainstream alternative to negro and its derived terms.

After the civil rights movement , the terms colored and negro gave way to "black". Negro had superseded colored as the most polite word for African Americans at a time when black was considered more offensive.

During the American civil rights movement of the s and s, some African-American leaders in the United States, notably Malcolm X , objected to the word Negro because they associated it with the long history of slavery, segregation, and discrimination that treated African Americans as second-class citizens, or worse.

Since the late s, various other terms for African Americans have been more widespread in popular usage. Aside from Black American , these include Afro-American in use from the late s to and African American used in the United States to refer to Black Americans, people often referred to in the past as American Negroes.

In the first years that black people were in the United States , they primarily identified themselves by their specific ethnic group closely allied to language and not by skin color.

Individuals identified themselves, for example, as Ashanti , Igbo , Bakongo , or Wolof. However, when the first captives were brought to the Americas , they were often combined with other groups from West Africa, and individual ethnic affiliations were not generally acknowledged by English colonists.

In areas of the Upper South, different ethnic groups were brought together. This is significant as the captives came from a vast geographic region: the West African coastline stretching from Senegal to Angola and in some cases from the south-east coast such as Mozambique.

A new African-American identity and culture was born that incorporated elements of the various ethnic groups and of European cultural heritage, resulting in fusions such as the Black church and African-American English.

This new identity was based on provenance and slave status rather than membership in any one ethnic group.

By contrast, slave records from Louisiana show that the French and Spanish colonists recorded more complete identities of the West Africans, including ethnicities and given tribal names.

The US racial or ethnic classification "black" refers to people with all possible kinds of skin pigmentation, from the darkest through to the very lightest skin colors, including albinos , if they are believed by others to have African ancestry in any discernible percentage.

There are also certain cultural traits associated with being " African American ", a term used effectively as a synonym for "black person" within the United States.

In March , Great Britain , which largely controlled the Atlantic, declared the transatlantic slave trade illegal , as did the United States. The latter prohibition took effect 1 January , the earliest date on which Congress had the power to do so after protecting the slave trade under Article I, Section 9 of the United States Constitution.

By that time, the majority of black people in the United States were native-born, so the use of the term "African" became problematic. Though initially a source of pride, many blacks feared that the use of African as an identity would be a hindrance to their fight for full citizenship in the US.

They also felt that it would give ammunition to those who were advocating repatriating black people back to Africa.

In , black leaders called upon Black Americans to remove the title of "African" from their institutions and replace it with " Negro " or "Colored American".

A few institutions chose to keep their historic names, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church.

African Americans popularly used the terms "Negro" or "colored" for themselves until the late s. The term black was used throughout but not frequently since it carried a certain stigma.

Each time he uses black it is in parallel construction with white ; for example, "black men and white men". With the successes of the civil rights movement , a new term was needed to break from the past and help shed the reminders of legalized discrimination.

In place of Negro , activists promoted the use of black as standing for racial pride, militancy, and power. In , the civil rights leader Jesse Jackson urged Americans to use instead the term "African American" because it had a historical cultural base and was a construction similar to terms used by European descendants, such as German American, Italian American, etc.

Since then, African American and black have often had parallel status. However, controversy continues over which if any of the two terms is more appropriate.

Maulana Karenga argues that the term African-American is more appropriate because it accurately articulates their geographical and historical origin.

In the U. Recent surveys of African Americans using a genetic testing service have found varied ancestries which show different tendencies by region and sex of ancestors.

These studies found that on average, African Americans have People tend to overestimate how big and strong black men are.

From the late 19th century, the South used a colloquial term, the one-drop rule , to classify as black a person of any known African ancestry.

This practice of hypodescent was not put into law until the early 20th century. Racial definition was more flexible in the 18th and 19th centuries before the American Civil War.

Outside the U. The one-drop rule may have originated as a means of increasing the number of black slaves [] and was maintained as an attempt to keep the white race pure.

They advocated equality for all. The concept of blackness in the United States has been described as the degree to which one associates themselves with mainstream African-American culture , politics, [] [] and values.

Blackness can be contrasted with " acting white ", where black Americans are said to behave with assumed characteristics of stereotypical white Americans with regard to fashion , dialect , taste in music , [] and possibly, from the perspective of a significant number of black youth, academic achievement.

Due to the often political [] [] and cultural contours of blackness in the United States, the notion of blackness can also be extended to non-black people.

Toni Morrison once described Bill Clinton as the first black President of the United States , [] because, as she put it, he displayed "almost every trope of blackness".

The question of blackness also arose in the Democrat Barack Obama 's presidential campaign. Commentators have questioned whether Obama, who was elected the first president with black ancestry, is "black enough", contending that his background is not typical because his mother was white American , and his father was a black student visitor from Kenya.

In July , Ancestry. An indentured servant , he was "bound for life" in after trying to escape. The story of him and his descendants is that of multi-racial America since it appeared he and his sons married or had unions with white women, likely indentured servants and working-class like them.

Their multi-racial children were free because they were born to free English women. Over time, Obama's line of the Bunch family as they became known were property owners and continued to "marry white"; they became part of white society, likely by the early to midth century.

In Virginia, negro former slaves who had maintained their freedom married Native American women. Racism against them and dark skin generally in Mexico and most of Latin America is prevalent.

The first Afro-Dominican slaves were shipped to the Dominican Republic by Spanish conquistadors during the Transatlantic slave trade.

Spanish conquistadors shipped slaves from West Africa to Puerto Rico. Afro-Puerto Ricans in part trace descent to this colonization of the island.

Approximately 12 million people were shipped from Africa to the Americas during the Atlantic slave trade from to Of these, The concept of race in Brazil is complex.

A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both of his or her parents, nor were there only two categories to choose from.

Between an individual of unmixed West African ancestry and a very light mulatto individual, more than a dozen racial categories were acknowledged, based on various combinations of hair color , hair texture , eye color , and skin color.

These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest.

In Brazil, people are classified by appearance, not heredity. Scholars disagree over the effects of social status on racial classifications in Brazil.

It is generally believed that achieving upward mobility and education results in individuals being classified as a category of lighter skin.

The popular claim is that in Brazil, poor whites are considered black and wealthy blacks are considered white. Some scholars disagree, arguing that " whitening " of one's social status may be open to people of mixed race , a large part of the population known as pardo , but a person perceived as preto black will continue to be classified as black regardless of wealth or social status.

From the years to , an estimated 3. The territory received the highest number of slaves of any country in the Americas.

Brazil has the largest population of Afro-ancestry outside Africa. In contrast to the US, during the slavery period and after, the Portuguese colonial government in Brazil and the later Brazilian government did not pass formal anti- miscegenation or segregation laws.

As in other Latin American countries, intermarriage was prevalent during the colonial period and continued afterward. In addition, people of mixed race pardo often tended to marry white spouses, and their descendants became accepted as white.

As a result, some of the European descended population also has West African or Amerindian blood. In the 19th century, a philosophy of racial whitening emerged in Brazil, related to the assimilation of mixed-race people into the white population through intermarriage.

Until recently the government did not keep data on race. Some classified as pardo were tri-racial. By the census, demographic changes including the end to slavery, immigration from Europe and Asia, assimilation of multiracial persons, and other factors resulted in a population in which 6.

Essentially most of the black population was absorbed into the multi-racial category by intermixing. Because of the acceptance of miscegenation , Brazil has avoided the binary polarization of society into black and white.

In addition, it abolished slavery without a civil war. The bitter and sometimes violent racial tensions that have divided the US are notably absent in Brazil.

According to the census, 6. In , Elio Ferreira de Araujo, Brazil's minister for racial equality, attributed the increases to growing pride among his country's black and indigenous communities.

The philosophy of the racial democracy in Brazil has drawn some criticism, based on economic issues.

Brazil has one of the largest gaps in income distribution in the world. The richest 10 percent is almost exclusively white or predominantly European in ancestry.

One-third of the population lives under the poverty line , with blacks and other people of color accounting for 70 percent of the poor. In United States, African Americans, including multiracial people, earned Other social factors, such as illiteracy and education levels, show the same patterns of disadvantage for people of color.

Some commentators [ who? This has hindered the development of a common identity among black Brazilians. Though Brazilians of at least partial African heritage make up a large percentage [] of the population, few blacks have been elected as politicians.

Journalists like to say that US cities with black majorities, such as Detroit and New Orleans , have not elected white mayors since after the civil rights movement, when the Voting Rights Act of protected the franchise for minorities, and blacks in the South regained the power to vote for the first time since the turn of the 20th century.

New Orleans elected its first black mayor in the s. Patterns of discrimination against non-whites have led some academic and other activists to advocate for use of the Portuguese term negro to encompass all African-descended people, in order to stimulate a "black" consciousness and identity.

Most Black Venezuelans came directly from Africa having been brought as slaves during colonization; [] others have been descendants of immigrants from the Antilles and Colombia.

The blacks were part of the independence movement , and several managed to be heroes. There is a deep-rooted heritage of African culture in Venezuelan culture, as demonstrated in many traditional Venezuelan music and dances, such as the Tambor , a musical genre inherited from the blacks of the colony, or the Llanera music or the Gaita zuliana that both are a fusion of all the three major peoples that contribute to the cultural heritage.

Also the black inheritance is present in the gastronomy. Currently blacks represent a relative majority in the Venezuelan population, although many are actually mixed people.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. People with a mid to dark brown complexion. African-American art. Black music. Race in Brazil in the United States.

Race and health in the United States in Australia. Main article: Indigenous peoples of Africa. Further information: Bantu peoples in South Africa.

Main article: Afro-Asians. Main article: Afro-Arab. Main article: Afro-Iranians. Main article: Beta Israel. Main article: African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem.

Main article: Afro-Turks. Main article: Siddi. Main articles: Negritos and Africans in Malaysia. Main articles: Afro-Portuguese and Black people in Ireland.

Main article: Black people in France. Main article: Afro-Germans. Main article: Afro-Dutch. Main article: Afro-Spaniard.

Main article: Black British. Main article: Afro-Russian. Main article: Indigenous Australians. Main article: Melanesians.

Main article: Black Canadians. Main article: African Americans. Main article: Afro-Mexicans. Further information: Society and black people in the Spanish Colonial Americas.

Main article: Afro-Dominicans. Main article: Afro-Puerto Ricans. Main article: Afro-Brazilians. Main article: Afro-Colombians. Main article: Afro-Venezuelan.

Associated Press. Retrieved 21 June Purdue Writing Lab. Retrieved 6 September No Citizen Left Behind. Harvard University Press. BMC Evolutionary Biology.

Archived from the original on 4 June Sussex Academic Press. Law and Policy in International Business. Negative Ethnicity: From Bias to Genocide.

Seven Stories Press. George B. Ayittey 15 January Africa in Chaos: A Comparative History. Palgrave Macmillan. Ayittey Indigenous African Institutions.

Transnational Publishers. Diallo, Garba Current African Issues. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet National Museum of Copenhagen. Foreign Areas Studies Area Handbook for Ethiopia.

Government Printing Office. Dynamics of Religion: Past and Present. Gorgoryos had already named another concept in Ge'ez[ Islam in Ethiopia.

These negroes are the remnants of the original inhabitants of the fluvial region of Somaliland who were overwhelmed by the wave of Somali conquest.

Retrieved 6 May The Making of Modern Ethiopia: — The Red Sea Press. The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 7 April Geographical Review.

The New York Times. South African Historical Journal. The Star. Westport, Conn. That is until now. Michelle Johnson — August 8, 0 comment.

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The second half of the 20th century to the present has seen a gradual shift towards improved human rights for Aboriginal people. Activist Bob Maza said:.

I only hope that when I die I can say I'm black and it's beautiful to be black. It is this sense of pride which we are trying to give back to the aborigine [ sic ] today.

This nationwide acceptance and recognition of Aboriginal people led to a significant increase in the number of people self-identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander.

Melanesians, along with other Pacific Islanders , were frequently deceived or coerced during the 19th and 20th centuries into forced labour for sugarcane, cotton, and coffee planters in countries distant to their native lands in a practice known as blackbirding.

In Queensland , some 55, to 62, [] were brought from the New Hebrides , the Solomon Islands , and New Guinea to work in sugarcane fields.

Under the Pacific Island Labourers Act , most islanders working in Queensland were repatriated back to their homelands.

Many Melanesians have taken up the term 'Melanesia' as a way to empower themselves as a collective people. Stephanie Lawson writes that the term "moved from a term of denigration to one of affirmation, providing a positive basis for contemporary subregional identity as well as a formal organisation".

John Caesar , nicknamed "Black Caesar", a convict and bushranger with parents born in an unknown area in Africa, was one of the first people of recent Black African ancestry to arrive in Australia.

At the Census, , residents declared that they were born in Africa. This figure pertains to all immigrants to Australia who were born in nations in Africa regardless of race, and includes White Africans.

Black Canadians is a designation used for people of Black African ancestry, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada. Black Canadians often draw a distinction between those of Afro-Caribbean ancestry and those of other African roots.

The term African Canadian is occasionally used by some Black Canadians who trace their heritage to the first slaves brought by British and French colonists to the North American mainland.

In addition, an estimated ten to thirty thousand fugitive slaves reached freedom in Canada from the Southern United States during the antebellum years, aided by people along the Underground Railroad.

Many Black people of Caribbean origin in Canada reject the term African Canadian as an elision of the uniquely Caribbean aspects of their heritage, [] and instead identify as Caribbean Canadian.

There were eight principal areas used by Europeans to buy and ship slaves to the Western Hemisphere. The number of enslaved people sold to the New World varied throughout the slave trade.

As for the distribution of slaves from regions of activity, certain areas produced far more enslaved people than others. Between and , By the s, nigger had become a pejorative word in the United States.

In its stead, the term colored became the mainstream alternative to negro and its derived terms. After the civil rights movement , the terms colored and negro gave way to "black".

Negro had superseded colored as the most polite word for African Americans at a time when black was considered more offensive. During the American civil rights movement of the s and s, some African-American leaders in the United States, notably Malcolm X , objected to the word Negro because they associated it with the long history of slavery, segregation, and discrimination that treated African Americans as second-class citizens, or worse.

Since the late s, various other terms for African Americans have been more widespread in popular usage. Aside from Black American , these include Afro-American in use from the late s to and African American used in the United States to refer to Black Americans, people often referred to in the past as American Negroes.

In the first years that black people were in the United States , they primarily identified themselves by their specific ethnic group closely allied to language and not by skin color.

Individuals identified themselves, for example, as Ashanti , Igbo , Bakongo , or Wolof. However, when the first captives were brought to the Americas , they were often combined with other groups from West Africa, and individual ethnic affiliations were not generally acknowledged by English colonists.

In areas of the Upper South, different ethnic groups were brought together. This is significant as the captives came from a vast geographic region: the West African coastline stretching from Senegal to Angola and in some cases from the south-east coast such as Mozambique.

A new African-American identity and culture was born that incorporated elements of the various ethnic groups and of European cultural heritage, resulting in fusions such as the Black church and African-American English.

This new identity was based on provenance and slave status rather than membership in any one ethnic group.

By contrast, slave records from Louisiana show that the French and Spanish colonists recorded more complete identities of the West Africans, including ethnicities and given tribal names.

The US racial or ethnic classification "black" refers to people with all possible kinds of skin pigmentation, from the darkest through to the very lightest skin colors, including albinos , if they are believed by others to have African ancestry in any discernible percentage.

There are also certain cultural traits associated with being " African American ", a term used effectively as a synonym for "black person" within the United States.

In March , Great Britain , which largely controlled the Atlantic, declared the transatlantic slave trade illegal , as did the United States.

The latter prohibition took effect 1 January , the earliest date on which Congress had the power to do so after protecting the slave trade under Article I, Section 9 of the United States Constitution.

By that time, the majority of black people in the United States were native-born, so the use of the term "African" became problematic. Though initially a source of pride, many blacks feared that the use of African as an identity would be a hindrance to their fight for full citizenship in the US.

They also felt that it would give ammunition to those who were advocating repatriating black people back to Africa.

In , black leaders called upon Black Americans to remove the title of "African" from their institutions and replace it with " Negro " or "Colored American".

A few institutions chose to keep their historic names, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church. African Americans popularly used the terms "Negro" or "colored" for themselves until the late s.

The term black was used throughout but not frequently since it carried a certain stigma. Each time he uses black it is in parallel construction with white ; for example, "black men and white men".

With the successes of the civil rights movement , a new term was needed to break from the past and help shed the reminders of legalized discrimination.

In place of Negro , activists promoted the use of black as standing for racial pride, militancy, and power. In , the civil rights leader Jesse Jackson urged Americans to use instead the term "African American" because it had a historical cultural base and was a construction similar to terms used by European descendants, such as German American, Italian American, etc.

Since then, African American and black have often had parallel status. However, controversy continues over which if any of the two terms is more appropriate.

Maulana Karenga argues that the term African-American is more appropriate because it accurately articulates their geographical and historical origin.

In the U. Recent surveys of African Americans using a genetic testing service have found varied ancestries which show different tendencies by region and sex of ancestors.

These studies found that on average, African Americans have People tend to overestimate how big and strong black men are.

From the late 19th century, the South used a colloquial term, the one-drop rule , to classify as black a person of any known African ancestry.

This practice of hypodescent was not put into law until the early 20th century. Racial definition was more flexible in the 18th and 19th centuries before the American Civil War.

Outside the U. The one-drop rule may have originated as a means of increasing the number of black slaves [] and was maintained as an attempt to keep the white race pure.

They advocated equality for all. The concept of blackness in the United States has been described as the degree to which one associates themselves with mainstream African-American culture , politics, [] [] and values.

Blackness can be contrasted with " acting white ", where black Americans are said to behave with assumed characteristics of stereotypical white Americans with regard to fashion , dialect , taste in music , [] and possibly, from the perspective of a significant number of black youth, academic achievement.

Due to the often political [] [] and cultural contours of blackness in the United States, the notion of blackness can also be extended to non-black people.

Toni Morrison once described Bill Clinton as the first black President of the United States , [] because, as she put it, he displayed "almost every trope of blackness".

The question of blackness also arose in the Democrat Barack Obama 's presidential campaign. Commentators have questioned whether Obama, who was elected the first president with black ancestry, is "black enough", contending that his background is not typical because his mother was white American , and his father was a black student visitor from Kenya.

In July , Ancestry. An indentured servant , he was "bound for life" in after trying to escape. The story of him and his descendants is that of multi-racial America since it appeared he and his sons married or had unions with white women, likely indentured servants and working-class like them.

Their multi-racial children were free because they were born to free English women. Over time, Obama's line of the Bunch family as they became known were property owners and continued to "marry white"; they became part of white society, likely by the early to midth century.

In Virginia, negro former slaves who had maintained their freedom married Native American women. Racism against them and dark skin generally in Mexico and most of Latin America is prevalent.

The first Afro-Dominican slaves were shipped to the Dominican Republic by Spanish conquistadors during the Transatlantic slave trade.

Spanish conquistadors shipped slaves from West Africa to Puerto Rico. Afro-Puerto Ricans in part trace descent to this colonization of the island.

Approximately 12 million people were shipped from Africa to the Americas during the Atlantic slave trade from to Of these, The concept of race in Brazil is complex.

A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both of his or her parents, nor were there only two categories to choose from.

Between an individual of unmixed West African ancestry and a very light mulatto individual, more than a dozen racial categories were acknowledged, based on various combinations of hair color , hair texture , eye color , and skin color.

These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest.

In Brazil, people are classified by appearance, not heredity. Scholars disagree over the effects of social status on racial classifications in Brazil.

It is generally believed that achieving upward mobility and education results in individuals being classified as a category of lighter skin.

The popular claim is that in Brazil, poor whites are considered black and wealthy blacks are considered white. Some scholars disagree, arguing that " whitening " of one's social status may be open to people of mixed race , a large part of the population known as pardo , but a person perceived as preto black will continue to be classified as black regardless of wealth or social status.

From the years to , an estimated 3. The territory received the highest number of slaves of any country in the Americas.

Brazil has the largest population of Afro-ancestry outside Africa. In contrast to the US, during the slavery period and after, the Portuguese colonial government in Brazil and the later Brazilian government did not pass formal anti- miscegenation or segregation laws.

As in other Latin American countries, intermarriage was prevalent during the colonial period and continued afterward. In addition, people of mixed race pardo often tended to marry white spouses, and their descendants became accepted as white.

As a result, some of the European descended population also has West African or Amerindian blood. In the 19th century, a philosophy of racial whitening emerged in Brazil, related to the assimilation of mixed-race people into the white population through intermarriage.

Until recently the government did not keep data on race. Some classified as pardo were tri-racial. By the census, demographic changes including the end to slavery, immigration from Europe and Asia, assimilation of multiracial persons, and other factors resulted in a population in which 6.

Essentially most of the black population was absorbed into the multi-racial category by intermixing. Because of the acceptance of miscegenation , Brazil has avoided the binary polarization of society into black and white.

In addition, it abolished slavery without a civil war. The bitter and sometimes violent racial tensions that have divided the US are notably absent in Brazil.

According to the census, 6. In , Elio Ferreira de Araujo, Brazil's minister for racial equality, attributed the increases to growing pride among his country's black and indigenous communities.

The philosophy of the racial democracy in Brazil has drawn some criticism, based on economic issues. Brazil has one of the largest gaps in income distribution in the world.

The richest 10 percent is almost exclusively white or predominantly European in ancestry. One-third of the population lives under the poverty line , with blacks and other people of color accounting for 70 percent of the poor.

In United States, African Americans, including multiracial people, earned Other social factors, such as illiteracy and education levels, show the same patterns of disadvantage for people of color.

Some commentators [ who? This has hindered the development of a common identity among black Brazilians. Though Brazilians of at least partial African heritage make up a large percentage [] of the population, few blacks have been elected as politicians.

Journalists like to say that US cities with black majorities, such as Detroit and New Orleans , have not elected white mayors since after the civil rights movement, when the Voting Rights Act of protected the franchise for minorities, and blacks in the South regained the power to vote for the first time since the turn of the 20th century.

New Orleans elected its first black mayor in the s. Patterns of discrimination against non-whites have led some academic and other activists to advocate for use of the Portuguese term negro to encompass all African-descended people, in order to stimulate a "black" consciousness and identity.

Most Black Venezuelans came directly from Africa having been brought as slaves during colonization; [] others have been descendants of immigrants from the Antilles and Colombia.

The blacks were part of the independence movement , and several managed to be heroes. There is a deep-rooted heritage of African culture in Venezuelan culture, as demonstrated in many traditional Venezuelan music and dances, such as the Tambor , a musical genre inherited from the blacks of the colony, or the Llanera music or the Gaita zuliana that both are a fusion of all the three major peoples that contribute to the cultural heritage.

Also the black inheritance is present in the gastronomy. Currently blacks represent a relative majority in the Venezuelan population, although many are actually mixed people.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. People with a mid to dark brown complexion. African-American art. Black music.

Race in Brazil in the United States. Race and health in the United States in Australia. Main article: Indigenous peoples of Africa. Further information: Bantu peoples in South Africa.

Main article: Afro-Asians. Main article: Afro-Arab. Main article: Afro-Iranians. Main article: Beta Israel.

Main article: African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem. Main article: Afro-Turks. Main article: Siddi. Main articles: Negritos and Africans in Malaysia.

Main articles: Afro-Portuguese and Black people in Ireland. Main article: Black people in France. Main article: Afro-Germans.

Main article: Afro-Dutch. Main article: Afro-Spaniard. Main article: Black British. Main article: Afro-Russian. Main article: Indigenous Australians.

Main article: Melanesians. Main article: Black Canadians. Main article: African Americans. Main article: Afro-Mexicans. Further information: Society and black people in the Spanish Colonial Americas.

Main article: Afro-Dominicans. Main article: Afro-Puerto Ricans. Main article: Afro-Brazilians. Main article: Afro-Colombians. Main article: Afro-Venezuelan.

Associated Press. Retrieved 21 June Purdue Writing Lab. Retrieved 6 September No Citizen Left Behind. Harvard University Press.

BMC Evolutionary Biology. Archived from the original on 4 June Sussex Academic Press. Law and Policy in International Business. Negative Ethnicity: From Bias to Genocide.

Seven Stories Press. George B. Ayittey 15 January Africa in Chaos: A Comparative History. Palgrave Macmillan. Ayittey Indigenous African Institutions.

Transnational Publishers. Diallo, Garba Current African Issues. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet National Museum of Copenhagen. Foreign Areas Studies Area Handbook for Ethiopia.

Government Printing Office. Dynamics of Religion: Past and Present. Gorgoryos had already named another concept in Ge'ez[ Islam in Ethiopia.

These negroes are the remnants of the original inhabitants of the fluvial region of Somaliland who were overwhelmed by the wave of Somali conquest. Retrieved 6 May The Making of Modern Ethiopia: — The Red Sea Press.

The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 7 April Geographical Review. The New York Times. South African Historical Journal.

The Star. Westport, Conn. Retrieved 4 July The Washington Post. Historians say that most African-Iraqis arrived as slaves from East Africa as part of the Arab slave trade starting about 1, years ago.

They worked in southern Iraq's salt marshes and sugarcane fields. Though slavery — which in Iraq included Arabs as well as Africans — was banned in the s, it continued until the s, African-Iraqis say.

Recently, they have begun to campaign for recognition as a minority population, which would grant them the same benefits as Christians, including reserved seats in Parliament To the present day there are Arab princes in Saudi Arabia who, in the Western world, would be regarded as 'Black'.

One of the main reasons why the African Diaspora in the Arab world is so small is that people with African blood are much more readily accepted as Arabs than they would be accepted as 'Whites' in the Americas.

Bagley et al. Sudanese nationals". Sudan Tribune. The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 28 August American University in Cairo Press.

American Journal of Human Genetics. Published by: Clark Atlanta University. Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River.

UK: Hachette. Taipei Times. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Negrito of Thailand". Archived from the original on 20 May Wisconsin: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Miscellaneous Works of William Marsden. Parbury, Allen. Oceanic Linguistics. GMA News Online. The Christian Science Monitor.

Oxford University Press. In one sense the word 'Moor' means Mohammedan Berbers and Arabs of North-western Africa, with some Syrians, who conquered most of Spain in the 8th century and dominated the country for hundreds of years.

Moorings: Portuguese Expansion and the Writing of Africa. University of Minnesota Press. Archived from the original on 13 March That is until now.

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